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以人教版新目标英语八年级上为例探讨初中英语写作教学实践

发布时间:2020-01-11 19:31

  摘 要:概述初中英语写作教学的研究背景。以人教版新目标《英语》八年级(上)Unit 3 I’m more outgoing than my sister Section B 3a—3c 的教学为例,搭建写作支架,开展从读到写的半限制性写作和开放性写作,从内容立意、文体结构、语言知识、语篇连贯等方面提高学生的书面表达能力,并探讨如何运用翼课网“纸笔课堂”进行写作评价,从而提升英语写作教学的精准性。

  【关键词】写作教学;写作支架;纸笔课堂

  引言

  《普通高中英语课程标准(2017 年版)》强调发展学生的英语学科核心素养,即重视对学生语言能力、文化意识、思维品质和学习能力的综合培养,同时提出指向学科核心素养的英语学习活动观,明确活动是英语学习的基本形式(教育部 2018)。写作课是英语课程的重要组成部分,也是培养学生英语学科核心素养的主要阵地。如何提高初中英语写作教学质量,有效引导学生提高写作能力,是值得研究的问题。

  一、课例研究背景

  初中是学习英语写作的基础阶段。《义务教育英语课程标准(2011 年版)》对初中阶段写作目标进行了较详尽的描述,如能参照范例写出或回复简单的问候和邀请(三级写作目标);能在教师的帮助或小组讨论下起草和修改作文(四级写作目标);能根据写作要求,收集、准备素材;能使用常见的连词表示顺序和逻辑关系;能简单描述人物或事件等(五级写作目标)。

  “写”是语言输出的重要途径,能客观地反映学生的语言综合运用能力。虽然英语教学的整体水平不断提高,但是就目前学习现状、教学现状及评价现状来看,写作依然是让学生头疼、让教师烦恼的事情,存在的问题或困惑较多。例如,写作时,学生往往表现出“无从下笔,写出的内容空洞,事例单调,语法错误较多”的现象;教师日常的写作教学随意性较强,较少对学生进行系统的写作技能指导与训练等。

  在传统教学条件下,教师对写作的评价认识狭隘,对学生的写作评价形式单一,过程记录不全面, 很难激发学生的写作兴趣。随着信息技术的兴起, 如果能借用网络和智能平台,在线批阅学生的作文,给予他们及时评价和个性化指导,将会解决英语写作教学中的部分难点,促进精准教学。翼课网的“纸笔课堂”应运而生。“纸笔课堂”由一块可以手写的智能平板和一支电子笔组成,在平板上放上一张普通的纸,学生就可以随意在上面书写。授课时,学生把写完的作文上传至翼课网,翼课网就会给出及时的批阅和更改建议,还能提供全班学生的等级评价数据。这些功能为英语精准教学提供了可能。

  二、翼课网“纸笔课堂”支持下的初中英语写作教学实践

  下面,笔者以人教版新目标《英语》八年级(上) Unit 3 I’m more outgoing than my sister Section B 3a—3c 的教学为例,说明如何运用翼课网“纸笔课堂”赋能英语写作教学。

  (一)教学目标

  通过本堂课的学习,学生能够:

  1. 正确运用比较级和 tall,outgoing,funny, smarter,more hard-working,less serious,thanas,both,be similar to,be different from... 等目标词汇、短语,比较朋友的个性异同,描述人物的特征。

  2. 写文章描述、比较自己和好友,并表达交友观。

  3. 运用翼课网“纸笔课堂”完成写作任务,小组合作制作一份题为 My Friend and I 的纪念册并进行展示。

  4. 在倾听、思考、表达的过程中,构建合乎情理、向上向善的交友观,努力做一个更好的人。

  (二)教学重难点

  1. 语言重难点:比较级的运用及 tall,outgoing, funny,smarter,more hard-working,less serious, than,as...as,both,be similar to,be different from 等词汇、短语的书写与正确运用。

  2. 写作重难点:如何运用丰富的词汇和不同的句式介绍自己和好友,描述、比较人物特征,表达朋友观。

  (三)教学过程

  Step 1:Lead-in

  Hello! We’ll make a new friend here! Look! It’s a magic pad. You can draw and write with it. Who is my best friend? Listen and draw!

  “My friend is different from me. He has a big

  head and a big nose. His ears are bigger than mine. He has short hair and a short neck. He is heavier than me. But he is as outgoing as me. We both like eating.

  I like going to the movies,but he likes sleeping. This

  is my best friend.”

  Share students’drawings on the screen. And then show the photo of my friend. Make students

  know the topic we will talk about in the class.

  【设计说明】课堂以“听一听、画一画”的游戏活动导入,教师用单元目标语言描述自己的朋友,帮助学生在倾听中理解和绘画。借用这种方式让学生了解翼课网“纸笔课堂”智能手写板的使用方法;以有趣的、与课堂内容主题相关的任务调动学生参与课堂的热情。

  Step 2:Read and think

  1. Read a story

  The teacher will share the following picture

  story about Auggie and Jack from the movie Wonder

  (《奇迹男孩》).

  I am Auggie. I’m as ordinary as other boys. I often wear a space helmet because I’m ugly,even scary. Some boys think I’m a freak(怪物). Jack is my

  best friend. He is as kind as me. He is taller than me. And he is more popular than me. I’m good at science

  but he isn’t good at it. We often share something

  interesting. However,I hear Jack speaks ill of me(说我坏话)on Halloween. I’m so sad. But one day,Jack

  fights with Julian because Julian calls me a freak. I know he still cares about me. We become good friends

  again. And I’m really happy.

  I like a saying,“A true friend reaches for your hand and touches your heart.”I think good friends are worth defending(值得捍卫)!

  (1) Think and answer

  Q1:Who is Auggie’s best friend? Q2:What does Auggie think of Jack?

  Jack is my best friend. He is as (kind)as me. He is (tall)than me. And he is

  (popular)than me. I’m good at science he isn’t good at it. We often share something interesting.

  Q3:How does Auggie feel when Jack speaks ill

  of him? How does Auggie feel when they become friends again?

  Q4:What does Auggie think? What saying does

  he like?

  (2) Think and summarize

  Ask students to think what to write and how to write well according to the passage content and structure.

  Give some advice to students. For example,you

  can write a passage with two parts. One part is about

  your friend and you,the other part is about your opinion. While writing,please think over the following questions:

  * Who is your best friend?

  * What do you think of your friend and you?

  * How do you feel?

  * What’s your opinion about friends?

  【设计说明】《奇迹男孩》是一部展现友谊与亲情的电影。它呈现了青少年在交友和与家人相处等方面的众多问题。教师以主人公奥吉(Auggie)为切入点,选择奥吉和杰克(Jack)这对朋友,运用视频, 呈现一个含有单元目标语言的配乐绘本故事。通过创设情景,期望以问题引导的形式,帮助学生运用比较级结构和部分形容词描述奥吉和杰克。同时, 搭建写作支架,通过思维导图帮助学生明确本堂课写作的篇章结构和内容立意——用比较的方式介绍、描述自己和好朋友,表达朋友观,并适当叙述故事和抒发情感。

  Step 3:Practice and compare

  1. Practice

  (1) Compare Wang Lingling and Liu Lili with the

  chart information in 3a. And complete the following passage:

  Wang Lingling thinks,“Friends are like books—

  you don’t need a lot of them as long as they’re good.” Her best friend is Liu Lili. They are both .

  Liu is . Perhaps,Liu is (smart)than Wang. However,Wang is (hard-working)than Liu. Although they’re different,they are good friends.

  (2) Feedback and help to deal with some writing problems.

  Give students a writing tip:Try to write with rich words and different sentences.

  2. Practice

  Compare two students with both,both of,as... as,...than...

  【设计说明】基于教材中的 3a 任务进行写作练习,补全文章。这属于限制性写作,目的在于检测学生能否正确运用 tall,outgoing,funny,smarter,more hard-working,less serious,than,as...as,both,be similar to,be different from...等语言比较朋友之间的异同,描述人物特征。教师运用希沃白板的手写功能,针对学生写作中的典型问题进行纠错,帮助学生改进,促进第一个教学目标的达成,并帮助学生明确: 可以使用丰富的词汇和句式进行比较与写作。随后,邀请两位学生站到讲台上,请其他学生现场比较这两位学生的异同,让学生进一步运用比较级,

  Wang is as

  as Liu. In some ways,Wang is

  实现目标语言的灵活运用。

  similar to Liu,they are outgoing. In some ways,

  Wang is different from Liu. Wang has long straight

  Step 4:Write

  1. Questionnaire

  hair,but Liu has

  straight hair. Wang likes

  (1)Fill in a questionnaire about best friends.

  reading, Liu likes sports. Wang is serious,but

  A questionnaire about best friends Your Name:

  Who is your best friend?

  What ideas do you agree with? You can choose more:I think...

  A. A good friend should like to do the same things as me.

  B. It’s not necessary to be the same.

  C. I don’t care if my friends are the same as me or different.

  D. Good friends should care about each other.

  What saying do you like best? Please choose one:I like the saying,...

  A. A good friend is like a mirror.

  B. Good friends are like good books.

  C. My best friend helps to bring out the best in me.

  D. A true friend reaches for your hand and touches your heart.

  What other sayings do you like?

  (2)Share opinions on friends What ideas do you agree with? What saying do you like best? What other sayings do you like?

  2. Writing

  We will have a writing competition today. Write an article with the topic My Friend and I. Who is your best friend? What is your friend like? What does he or she like? What do you think of your friend? You can compare your friend with you. Please try your best to win the Mini Nobel Prize in Literature!

  3. Group work

  (1) Share their articles in groups. Help each other to correct errors and make articles better.

  (2) Cooperate to make an autograph album themed with My Friend and I.

  4. Sharing

  Some students will read their articles in front of the class.

  5. Feedback

  Feedback to the writing result on Ekwing. Announce who won the first prize,the second prize and the Mini Nobel Prize in Literature.

  【设计说明】整个写作环节采用“搭建支架—尝试写作—同伴完善修改—分享”的步骤,体现了过 程化写作理念。首先,通过填写调查问卷和同伴交 流的方式,使学生能够构建人物写作的基本框架和 内容,初步构建自己的交友观,并用英语表达出来。其次,举办英语现场作文大赛,让学生运用翼课网 “纸笔课堂”智能手写板进行主题写作,写完后上传至翼课网平台。再次,通过小组合作的方式,让学生互相修改文章,合作制作一份题为 My Friend and I 的纪念册并进行展示。最后,运用翼课网反馈学生 的写作成果,公布获奖名单,实现作文的现场批阅 和评价,体现人工智能赋能英语教育的价值。设置 这些课堂任务活动,力图体现指向学科核心素养的 英语学习活动观,帮助学生经历与体验以“写”为主 旋律的综合实践活动。

  Step 5:Extend

  Watch the movie clip of Wonder. Help students

  understand what Tushman and Auggie said. Learn to be a better person.

  【设计说明】播放《奇迹男孩》的电影片段,使学

  生能够理解、领会影片中校长塔欣姆(Tushman)和主人公奥吉所说话语的含义,学习悦纳自己、接受差异、欣赏朋友、珍惜友情,努力做一个更好的人。

  三、教学反思和启示

  由于初中生的语言积累和生活体验有限,“以读促写”的写作教学路径比较切合实际,通过搭建写作支架,能开展从读到写的限制性写作和开放性写作。运用阅读文本不仅可以训练学生的阅读技能,还可以为学生提供主题、文体、谋篇布局、语言恰当表达方式等方面的范例和支架。同时,“以读促写”也能缓解课时紧、写作时间无法保证的问题。因此,教师可以通过帮助学生挖掘阅读素材,从内容立意、文体结构、语言知识、语篇连贯等方面提高学生的书面表达能力。

  在围绕话题设计读后写作任务时,教师应遵循难易结合、分层实施的原则。在写作教学策略上,采用“以读促写”的方式;在思维培养上,采用限制性写作与开放性写作并行的方式;在语言层次上,采用“先写句子后写文章”的方式;在学习方式上,采用“独立写作携手团队创作”的方式;在评价方式上,采用“学生评价、智能平台评价和教师评价相结合”的方式等。

  结束语

  在设计英语写作活动时,教师应以促进学生英语学科核心素养发展为目标,围绕主题语境,通过学习理解、应用实践、迁移创新等语言、思维、文化相融合的活动,帮助学生习得语言知识、运用语言技能, 完成写作。在写作教学中,教师应坚持以学定教,根据学生的认知和写作情况,适时调整教学策略,与信息技术深度融合,从而促成英语教学的精准性。


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